Clean and Sustainable Energy Revolution in Nigeria Synopsis of Opportunities and Barriers in Perspective

Main Article Content

Yekini Suberu Mohammed
Mathurine Guiawa
Onyegbadue Ikenna Augustine
Funsho Olowoniyi


Ensuring greater and worldwide access to clean energy is a fundamental requirement for modern socio-economic development. This can be achieved through a robust expansion of research and development in energy sustainable energy technologies especially in developing countries. Moving towards upgrading clean and sustainable energy technologies can unlock the potential for increasing energy supply across the globe. Most developing countries like Nigeria are naturally endowed with many renewable energy resources that remain inadequately untapped. Renewable Energy (RE) also known as clean and alternative energy has been at the forefront of global energy discourse in the last few decades due to climate change. Despite the current global level of utilization of fossil fuels for power generation, Nigeria is still not among the countries with a balance in the level of energy supply and demand for the citizens. The country has so many isolated rural communities that are not connected to the national electric power system due to the challenge of economic constriction. However, the application of RE technologies for energy supply in rural communities could be a cost-effective alternative to the much-anticipated grid extension to rural communities by the energy stakeholders and planners in the country. Therefore, this study presents a synopsis of the opportunities and barriers to developing clean and sustainable technologies in Nigeria. Core problems affecting the smooth deployment of RE in the country were identified through a perceptive literature review in addition to relevant recommendations towards increasing investment in RE investment in the country.

Keywords: Clean Energy, Electricity, Microgrid, Power System, Nigeria

Article Details

Clean and Sustainable Energy Revolution in Nigeria: Synopsis of Opportunities and Barriers in Perspective. (2024). African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Energy, 15(1), 124-144.

Copyright (c) 2024 Yekini Suberu Mohammed, Mathurine Guiawa, Onyegbadue Ikenna Augustine, Funsho Olowoniyi (Author)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Yekini Suberu Mohammed, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

TETFund Centre of Excellence for Clean Energy and Entrepreneurship Development,

Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 

Mathurine Guiawa, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,

Faculty of Engineering, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.

Onyegbadue Ikenna Augustine, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,

Faculty of Engineering, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. 

Funsho Olowoniyi, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

TETFund Centre of Excellence for Clean Energy and Entrepreneurship Development,

Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Adaramola, M. S., Paul, S. S., & Oyedepo, S. O. (2011). Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria. Energy Conversion and Management, 52(12), 3363-3368.

Adaramola, M. S., Oyewola, O. M., Ohunakin, O. S., & Akinnawonu, O. O. (2014). Performance evaluation of wind turbines for energy generation in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 6, 75-85.

Agbo, E. P., Edet, C. O., Magu, T. O., Njok, A. O., Ekpo, C. M., & Louis, H. (2021). Solar energy: A panacea for the electricity generation crisis in Nigeria. Heliyon, 7(5).

Ajayi, O. O., Mokryani, G., & Edun, B. M. (2022). Sustainable energy for national climate change, food security and employment opportunities: Implications for Nigeria. Fuel Communications, 10, 100045.

Ajayi, O. O. (2010). Nigeria's energy policy and vision 20: 2020: Issues of wind and other renewable energy technologies. Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection (Strategies and Procedures for Developing Nations), Institute of Environmental Research and Development, 117-120.

Arndt, R., & Puto, R. (2010). Basic understanding of IEC standard testing for photovoltaic panels. TÜV SÜD Prod. Serv.

Amir, M., & Khan, S. Z. (2022). Assessment of renewable energy: Status, challenges, COVID-19 impacts, opportunities, and sustainable energy solutions in Africa. Energy and Built Environment, 3(3), 348-362.

Anh, H. P. H. (2014). Implementation of supervisory controller for solar PV microgrid system using adaptive neural model. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 63, 1023-1029.

Ayamolowo, O. J., Salau, A. O., & Wara, S. T. (2019). The power industry reform in Nigeria: the journey so far. 2019 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica, 12-17.

Bisaga, I., Parikh, P., Tomei, J., & To, L. S. (2021). Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the sustainable development goals: A case study of off-grid solar energy in Rwanda. Energy Policy, 149, 112028.

Botelho, A., Ferreira, P., Lima, F., Pinto, L. M. C., & Sousa, S. (2017). Assessment of the environmental impacts associated with hydropower. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 896-904.

Chang, Y. (2007). The New Electricity Market of Singapore: Regulatory framework, market power and competition. Energy policy, 35(1), 403-412.

Dayo, F. B. (2008). Clean energy investment in Nigeria. The domestic content. A country case study completed for IISD's clean energy investment project.

Ebhota, W. S., & Tabakov, P. Y. (2018). Power inadequacy, the thorn in economic growth of Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 13(16), 12602-12610.

Eid, B. M., Abd Rahim, N., Selvaraj, J., & Elkhateb, A. (2014). Control methods and objectives for electronically coupled distributed energy resources in microgrids: A review. IEEE systems journal, 10(2), 446-458.

Elliott, R. J., Sun, P., & Zhu, T. (2017). The direct and indirect effect of urbanization on energy intensity: A province-level study for China. Energy, 123, 677-692.

Emmanuel, M., Akinyele, D., & Rayudu, R. (2017). Techno-economic analysis of a 10ákWp utility interactive photovoltaic system at Maungaraki school, Wellington, New Zealand. Energy, 120, 573-583.

Enongene, K. E., Abanda, F. H., Otene, I. J. J., Obi, S. I., & Okafor, C. (2019). The potential of solar photovoltaic systems for residential homes in Lagos city of Nigeria. Journal of environmental management, 244, 247-256.

Garratt, A., Petrella, I., & Zhang, Y. (2023). Asymmetry and interdependence when evaluating US Energy Information Administration forecasts. Energy Economics, 121, 106620.

Giwa, A., Alabi, A., Yusuf, A., & Olukan, T. (2017). A comprehensive review on biomass and solar energy for sustainable energy generation in Nigeria. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69, 620-641.

Gogan, K., & Ingersoll, E. (2023). REPOWER: Derisking and Accelerating the Energy Transition. ATW-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUCLEAR POWER, 68(6), 19-27.

Guan, X., Wei, H., Lu, S., Dai, Q., & Su, H. (2018). Assessment on the urbanization strategy in China: Achievements, challenges and reflections. Habitat International, 71, 97-109.

Hanna, R., Ghonima, M., Kleissl, J., Tynan, G., & Victor, D. G. (2017). Evaluating business models for microgrids: Interactions of technology and policy. Energy Policy, 103, 47-61.

Hossain, E., Kabalci, E., Bayindir, R., & Perez, R. (2014). Microgrid testbeds around the world: State of art. Energy conversion and management, 86, 132-153.

Ibikunle, R. A., Titiladunayo, I. F., Akinnuli, B. O., Dahunsi, S. O., & Olayanju, T. M. A. (2019). Estimation of power generation from municipal solid wastes: A case Study of Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. Energy Reports, 5, 126-135.


Jayasinghe, S. G., Meegahapola, L., Fernando, N., Jin, Z., & Guerrero, J. M. (2017). Review of ship microgrids: System architectures, storage technologies and power quality aspects. inventions, 2(1), 4.

Mohammed, Y. S., Mustafa, M. W., Bashir, N., Ogundola, M. A., & Umar, U. (2014). Sustainable potential of bioenergy resources for distributed power generation development in Nigeria. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 34, 361-370.

Mohammed, Y. S., Adetokun, B. B., Oghorada, O., & Oshiga, O. (2022). Techno-economic optimization of standalone hybrid power systems in context of intelligent computational multi-objective algorithms. Energy Reports, 8, 11661-11674.

Nwofe, P. A. (2014). Utilization of solar and biomass energy: A panacea to energy sustainability in a developing economy. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research, 2(3), 10-19.

Ogunnubi, O., Ajala, O., & Idehen, I. (2017). A proposal for a microgrid service in urban Nigeria. In 2017 IEEE PES PowerAfrica (pp. 474-478). IEEE.

Ohunakin, O. S., Adaramola, M. S., Oyewola, O. M., & Fagbenle, R. O. (2014). Solar energy applications and development in Nigeria: Drivers and barriers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32, 294-301.

Ohunakin, O. S., Adaramola, M. S., Oyewola, O. M., Matthew, O. J., & Fagbenle, R. O. (2015). The effect of climate change on solar radiation in Nigeria. Solar Energy, 116, 272-286.

Ohunakin, O. S., & Akinnawonu, O. O. (2012). Assessment of wind energy potential and the economics of wind power generation in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Energy for sustainable Development, 16(1), 78-83.

Ohunakin, O. S., Adaramola, M. S., & Oyewola, O. M. (2011). Wind energy evaluation for electricity generation using WECS in seven selected locations in Nigeria. Applied energy, 88(9), 3197-3206.

Okedu, K. E., Uhunmwangho, R. O. E. N. T. G. E. N., & Odje, M. (2020). Harnessing the potential of small hydro power in Cross River state of Southern Nigeria. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 37, 100617.

Okonkwo, C. C., Edoziuno, F. O., Adediran, A. A., Ibitogbe, E. M., Mahamood, R., & Akinlabi, E. T. (2021). Renewable energy in Nigeria: Potentials and challenges. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 56(3).

Oseni, M. O. (2011). An analysis of the power sector performance in Nigeria. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), 4765-4774.

Oyedepo, S. O. (2012). Energy and sustainable development in Nigeria: the way forward. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 2, 1-17.

Oyewunmi, T. (2014). Examining the legal and regulatory framework for domestic gas utilization and power generation in Nigeria. The Journal of World Energy Law & Business, 7(6), 538-557.

Rezaee, R., Nasseri, S., Mahvi, A. H., Jafari, A., Mazloomi, S., Gavami, A., & Yaghmaeian, K. (2014). Estimation of gas emission released from a municipal solid waste landfill site through a modeling approach: A case study, Sanandaj, Iran. Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research, 2(1), 13-21.

Ritchie, H., & Roster, M. (2023). Published online at ourworldindata. org; 2020. Renewable Energy https://ourworldindata. org/renewable-energy Retrieved from:[Google Scholar].

Romankiewicz, J., Marnay, C., Zhou, N., & Qu, M. (2014). Lessons from international experience for China's microgrid demonstration program. Energy Policy, 67, 198-208.

Rotilio, M., Marchionni, C., & De Berardinis, P. (2017). The small-scale hydropower plants in sites of environmental value: an Italian case study. Sustainability, 9(12), 2211.

Sambo, A. S. (2009). Strategic developments in renewable energy in Nigeria. International Association for Energy Economics, 16(3), 15-19.

Schramm, M. P., Bevelhimer, M. S., & DeRolph, C. R. (2016). A synthesis of environmental and recreational mitigation requirements at hydropower projects in the United States. Environmental science & policy, 61, 87-96.

Seifi, M., Soh, A. C., Wahab, N. A., & Hassan, M. K. (2013). Modeling of PV standalone microgrid based on IEEE standards, 1562-2007, 1361-2003 and 1013-2007. Rev. Model. Simul, 6, 515-525.

Somorin, T. O., Adesola, S., & Kolawole, A. (2017). State-level assessment of the waste-to-energy potential (via incineration) of municipal solid wastes in Nigeria. Journal of Cleaner Production, 164, 804-815.

Stern, D. I. (2004). Economic growth and energy. Encyclopedia of energy, 2(00147), 35-51.

Ton, D. T., & Smith, M. A. (2012). The US department of energy's microgrid initiative. The Electricity Journal, 25(8), 84-94.

Usman, Z. G., Abbasoglu, S., Ersoy, N. T., & Fahrioglu, M. (2015). Transforming the Nigerian power sector for sustainable development. Energy Policy, 87, 429-437.

Wouters, C. (2015). Towards a regulatory framework for microgrids-The Singapore experience. Sustainable Cities and Society, 15, 22-32.

Yetano Roche, M., Verolme, H., Agbaegbu, C., Binnington, T., Fischedick, M., & Oladipo, E. O. (2020). Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria's power sector: assessment of transition pathways. Climate Policy, 20(7), 846-865.