Effect of Passive Energy Efficiency Measures in Designing Sustainable Primary Healthcare Facilities in Nigeria

Main Article Content

Usman Ismail
Usman Bukar Wakawa
Aminu Umar
Bashir Usman Mohammad
Shamsuddeen Ismail


This study aims to develop a design for a sustainable healthcare centre through passive energy efficiency measures to improve the thermal comfort, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements for primary healthcare centres in Nigeria. The methodology adopted for the study included both primary and secondary data collection. Primary data were collected from the administered questionnaire (5-point Likert scale closed-ended), a total of 350 sets of questionnaires administered and 87% were valid. A case study research strategy was adopted to ascertain the effectiveness and efficiency of building design with an emphasis on sustainable architectural design principles. A significant regression equation was revealed (F (2,257) = 33.619, p <.000, with an R2 of 0.294, which revealed that implementing passive measures for energy optimization has a significant and positive effect on designing sustainable healthcare centres. It further recommends the integration of passive design, design for deconstruction, adaptive reuse, and design for human comfort as part of architectural design principles that would result in sustainable energy optimization should be adopted in every design of primary healthcare centres by architects.

Keywords: Passive Measures, Primary Healthcare, Design, Sustainable Primary Healthcare

Article Details

Effect of Passive Energy Efficiency Measures in Designing Sustainable Primary Healthcare Facilities in Nigeria. (2024). African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Energy, 15(1), 51-68. https://doi.org/10.62154/qd6jn632

Copyright (c) 2024 Usman Ismail, Usman Bukar Wakawa, Aminu Umar, Bashir Usman Mohammad, Shamsuddeen Ismail (Author)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Usman Ismail, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Department of Architecture,

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Usman Bukar Wakawa, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Department of Architecture,

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Aminu Umar, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Department of Architecture,

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Bashir Usman Mohammad, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Department of Architecture,

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Shamsuddeen Ismail, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Department of Architecture,

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.

Abdulraheem, I. S., Olapipo, A. R., & Amodu, M. O. (2012). Primary healthcare services in Nigeria: Critical issues and strategies for enhancing the use by the rural communities. 4(January), 5-13. https://doi.org/10.5897/JPHE11.133


Aflaki, N. Mahyuddin, and Z. A. Mahmoud, "A review on natural ventilation applications through building components and ventilation openings in tropical climates," Energy Build., vol. 101, pp. 153-162, 2015.


Ahmed, S. S., Majid, M. S., Novia, H., & Rahman, H. A. (2007). Fuzzy logic-based energy saving technique for a central air conditioning system. Energy, 32(7), 1222-1234.


Amirifard, F., Sharif, S. A., & Nasiri, F. (2019). Application of passive measures for energy conservation in buildings-a review. Advances in Building Energy Research, 13(2), 282-315.


Azizpour, F., Moghimi, S., Lim, C., Mat, S., Zaharim, A., & Sopian, K. (2011). Thermal comfort assessment in large scale hospital: case study in Malaysia. In Proceedings of the 4th WSEAS international conference on Energy and development-environment-biomedicine (pp. 171-174). World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS).

Becker, F., Parsons, K. S., Becker, F., & Parsons, K. S. (2009). Hospital facilities and the role of evidence-based design.


Boden, R., & Epstein, D. (2006). Managing the research imagination? Globalisation and research in higher education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 4(2), 223-236.


Bosch, J.P., Glaser, E., 2012. Powering Health: Electrification Options for Rural Health Centres, United States Agency for International Development, USAID. Available at: http://www.pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADJ557.pdf, Accessed on March 2, 2013

Buonomano, A., Calise, F., Ferruzzi, G., & Palombo, A. (2014). Dynamic energy performance analysis: Case study for energy efficiency retrofits of hospital buildings. Energy, 78, 555-572.


Butters, C. (2015). Enhancing Air Movement By Passive Means In Hot Climate Buildings. ELITH Research Program, Energy and Low-Income Tropical Housing, Warwick University, UK, (May 2015).

Cama, R. (2009). Evidence-Based Healthcare Design. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.

Chan, M., & Guo, J. (2013). The Role of Political Efficacy on the Relationship Between Facebook Use and Participatory Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Young American and Chinese Adults. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(6), 460-463.


Fellows R., & Liu A. (2015). Research methods for construction, 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons.

Fischl, G. (2006). Psychosocially supportive design in the in-door environment. Department of Human Work Sciences. Lulea University of Technology. Doctor: 135.

García-Sanz-Calcedo, J. (2014). Analysis on energy efficiency in healthcare buildings. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 5(3), 361-374.


Hamilton, D.K. and Watkins, D.H. (2009). Evidence-based design for multiple building type. Wiley, Hoboken

Hamilton D. (2003). The four levels of evidence-based practice, Healthcare, Dec3(4):18-26

Harper, D (2011) Online Etymology Dictionary, accessed 21 April 2016. Available at: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=evidence.

Harish, V. S. K. V, & Kumar, A. (2016). A review on modeling and simulation of building energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, 1272-1292.


John, A. (2014). A framework for key performance indicators for a holistic facility performance assessment. paper presented at CIB Facilities Management Conference, Technical University, Denmark. 12-23.

Keyton, J. (2014). Communication Research Asking Questions Finding Answers. McGraw-Hill.

Kelly, T. (2008). Evidence: Fundamental concepts and the phenomenal conception. Philosophy Compass, 3(5), 933-955.


Keyton, J. (2014). Communication Research Asking Questions Finding Answers. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Krejcie, R.V and Morgan, D.W. (1970) Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30: 607-10.


Lim, G., Barry, M., Keumala, N., & Ab, N. (2017). Daylight performance and users' visual appraisal for green building offices in Malaysia. Energy & Buildings, 141, 175-185.


Lu, Y., Goldstein, D. B., Angrist, M., & Cavalleri, G. (2014). Personalized medicine and human genetic diversity. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 4(9), a008581.


Nwanya, S. C., Sam-Amobi, C., & Ekechukwu, O. V. (2016). Energy performance indices for hospital buildings in Nigeria. International Journal of Technology, 7(1), 15-25.


Omoleke, I. I., & Taleat, B. A. (n.d.). Contemporary issues and challenges of health sector in Nigeria Enjeux contemporains et défis du secteur de la santé au Nigeria. 5(4), 210-216.


Sambo, A. S., Garba, B., Zarma, I. H., & Gaji, M. M. (n.d.). Electricity Generation and the Present Challenges in the Nigerian Power Sector. 1-17.

Tan, W. C. K. (2012). Practical research methods. Singapore: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Teke, A., & Timur, O. (2017). Overview of Energy Savings and Efficiency Strategies at the University of Jordan Hospital. International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, 14(1), 242-248.


Tetlow, R. M., Beaman, C. P., Elmualim, A. A., & Couling, K. (2014). Simple prompts reduce inadvertent energy consumption from lighting in office buildings. Building and Environment, 81, 234-242.


U.S. Department of Energy. (2015). Chapter 5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies. Quadrennial Technology Review, An Assessment of Energy Technologies and Research Opportunities, September, 143-181. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/03/f34/qtr-2015-chapter5.pdf

Udofia, P.E. (2011). Applied statistics with multivariate methods, 1st edition, Immaculate Publications limited, Enugu, Nigeria

Wang, B., Wu, Z., & Xia, X. (2017). A multistate-based control system approach toward optimal maintenance planning. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 25(1), 374-381.


Wahab, I. A., Ismail, L. H., Abdullah, A. H., Rahmat, M. H., & Salam, N. N. A. (2018). Natural ventilation design attributes application effect on indoor natural ventilation performance of a double storey single unit residential building. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 10(2), 7-12.