Comparative Analysis of Indoor Air Quality in Coal Mining Communities During Wet and Dry Seasons in the Coal Mining Belt of Kogi East, Nigeria

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Osseini Ukwenya Enock
Muhammed Rabiu
J.A. Edicha (Ph.D)
S.M. Hassan (Ph.D)


This study investigates the indoor air quality in coal mining communities during wet and dry seasons in the coal mining belt of Kogi East, Kogi State, Nigeria. The research was conducted at selected coal mining sites, specifically the Ika-Ogboyaga and Okaba mine sites, using a randomized sampling method. Indoor air quality data were collected from fifteen households in Ika and Odele villages within a 500-meter radius of the mining sites. Monitoring was performed using the Gasman autosampler to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulphur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H₂S), and particulate matter (PM₂.5 and PM₁₀). Data collection spanned 7 days each for the wet season (October 2022) and the dry season (February 2023), with measurements taken thrice daily. Meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity were also recorded. The results indicated higher pollutant concentrations during the dry season. For instance, PM₂.5 levels in Ika during the wet season were 45.3±0.25 μg/m³ (morning), 74.6±0.49 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 56.26±0.1 μg/m³ (evening), while dry season values were 48.32±1.74 μg/m³ (morning), 74.12±0.30 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 56.9±0.75 μg/m³ (evening). Similarly, PM₁₀ levels in Ika during the wet season were 73.61±1.44 μg/m³ (morning), 105.53±0.44 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 99.01±0.5 μg/m³ (evening), whereas dry season values were 75.47±0.70 μg/m³ (morning), 102.08±1.48 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 96.98±1.33 μg/m³ (evening). CO concentrations in Ika during the wet season were 4.22±0.22 ppm (morning), 6.13±0.3 ppm (afternoon), and 3.1±0.05 ppm (evening), and during the dry season, they were 5.55±1.74 ppm (morning), 8.11±1.46 ppm (afternoon), and 7.04±1.184 ppm (evening). Meteorological analysis showed that the dry season had higher wind speeds (2-4 m/s) compared to the wet season (0-2 m/s), and lower relative humidity (mean of 51.18%) compared to the wet season (mean of 77.55%). Air Quality Index (AQI) values indicated that PM₂.5 levels in both seasons were unhealthy (155.8-156.4 in the wet season and 151-200 in the dry season), while PM₁₀ levels were moderate (65.5-66.9 in the wet season and 51-100 in the dry season). CO, NO₂, and SO₂ levels generally remained within permissible limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Statistical analysis revealed significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of the monitored pollutants, with higher levels typically recorded during the dry season.

Keywords: Indoor, Air quality, Meteorological, Coal Mining, Pollutants

Article Details

Comparative Analysis of Indoor Air Quality in Coal Mining Communities During Wet and Dry Seasons in the Coal Mining Belt of Kogi East, Nigeria. (2024). African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Energy, 15(1), 01-23.

Copyright (c) 2024 Osseini Ukwenya Enock, Muhammed Rabiu, J.A. Edicha (Ph.D), S.M. Hassan (Ph.D) (Author)

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Osseini Ukwenya Enock, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Muhammed Rabiu, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

J.A. Edicha (Ph.D), University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

S.M. Hassan (Ph.D), University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

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