Comparative Analysis of Indoor Air Quality in Coal Mining Communities During Wet and Dry Seasons in the Coal Mining Belt of Kogi East, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Osseini Ukwenya Enock
Muhammed Rabiu
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2994-3822
J.A. Edicha (Ph.D)
S.M. Hassan (Ph.D)

Abstract

This study investigates the indoor air quality in coal mining communities during wet and dry seasons in the coal mining belt of Kogi East, Kogi State, Nigeria. The research was conducted at selected coal mining sites, specifically the Ika-Ogboyaga and Okaba mine sites, using a randomized sampling method. Indoor air quality data were collected from fifteen households in Ika and Odele villages within a 500-meter radius of the mining sites. Monitoring was performed using the Gasman autosampler to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulphur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H₂S), and particulate matter (PM₂.5 and PM₁₀). Data collection spanned 7 days each for the wet season (October 2022) and the dry season (February 2023), with measurements taken thrice daily. Meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity were also recorded. The results indicated higher pollutant concentrations during the dry season. For instance, PM₂.5 levels in Ika during the wet season were 45.3±0.25 μg/m³ (morning), 74.6±0.49 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 56.26±0.1 μg/m³ (evening), while dry season values were 48.32±1.74 μg/m³ (morning), 74.12±0.30 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 56.9±0.75 μg/m³ (evening). Similarly, PM₁₀ levels in Ika during the wet season were 73.61±1.44 μg/m³ (morning), 105.53±0.44 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 99.01±0.5 μg/m³ (evening), whereas dry season values were 75.47±0.70 μg/m³ (morning), 102.08±1.48 μg/m³ (afternoon), and 96.98±1.33 μg/m³ (evening). CO concentrations in Ika during the wet season were 4.22±0.22 ppm (morning), 6.13±0.3 ppm (afternoon), and 3.1±0.05 ppm (evening), and during the dry season, they were 5.55±1.74 ppm (morning), 8.11±1.46 ppm (afternoon), and 7.04±1.184 ppm (evening). Meteorological analysis showed that the dry season had higher wind speeds (2-4 m/s) compared to the wet season (0-2 m/s), and lower relative humidity (mean of 51.18%) compared to the wet season (mean of 77.55%). Air Quality Index (AQI) values indicated that PM₂.5 levels in both seasons were unhealthy (155.8-156.4 in the wet season and 151-200 in the dry season), while PM₁₀ levels were moderate (65.5-66.9 in the wet season and 51-100 in the dry season). CO, NO₂, and SO₂ levels generally remained within permissible limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Statistical analysis revealed significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of the monitored pollutants, with higher levels typically recorded during the dry season.

Keywords: Indoor, Air quality, Meteorological, Coal Mining, Pollutants

Article Details

Comparative Analysis of Indoor Air Quality in Coal Mining Communities During Wet and Dry Seasons in the Coal Mining Belt of Kogi East, Nigeria. (2024). African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Energy, 15(1), 01-23. https://doi.org/10.62154/nzfgg907
Articles

Copyright (c) 2024 Osseini Ukwenya Enock, Muhammed Rabiu, J.A. Edicha (Ph.D), S.M. Hassan (Ph.D) (Author)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Osseini Ukwenya Enock, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Muhammed Rabiu, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

J.A. Edicha (Ph.D), University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

S.M. Hassan (Ph.D), University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management,

University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Ali, M. (2010). Footprint in the Sand of Time, Eckanem Publishing press Lagos. Iloeje, NP (1972). A New geography of West Africa. Longman Group Ltd; Nigeria.

Ameh, E.G., Idakwo, S.O. and Ojonimi, I.T. (2021). Seasonal Variation of Toxic Metal Pollution in Soil and Sediment around Okaba Coal Mine Area, Kogi, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 57(1). Pp. 85-97.

Aniama, S. O., Usman, S.S and S.M. Ayodele (2016). Ethnobotanical documentation of some plants among Igala people of Kogi State. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 4(5): 33-42

Banat, K.M., Howari, F.M., Al-Hamad, A.A., 2005. Heavy metals in urban soils of central Jordan-Should we worry about their environmental risks? Environ. Res. 97 (3), 258-273.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2004.07.002

Boukhalfa, C., Chaguer, M., (2012). Characterisation of sediments polluted by acid mine drainage in the northeast of Algeria. Int. J. Sediment Res. 27 (3), 402-407.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6279(12)60045-6

Chernaik, M., (2010). Guidebook for Evaluating Mining Project EIAs, 1st Edition. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW), USA, p. 122p.

Ekwule, O. R., Ugbede, M. G., & Akpen, D. G. (2021). The Effect of Heavy Metal Concentration on the Soil of Odagbo Area, Kogi State Nigeria. Computational Engineering and Physical Modeling, 4(4), 84-93. https://doi.org/10.22115/cepm.2021.292378.1177

Elliott MA (1981) Chemistry of coal utilization: second supplementary volume. Wiley, New York, p 6001785

Huyen, D.T., Tabelin, C.B., Thuan, H.M., Danga, D.H., Truong, P.T., Vongphuthone, B., Kobayashi, M., 2019b. Geological and Geochemical Characterizations of Sediments in Six Borehole Cores from the Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifer of the Mekong Delta. Vietnam. Data in Brief, p. 104230.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104230

Jerome A. (2003). Preparation of Investment Profiles for Ventures in Mineral Resources. In: Elueze A.A. (ed.) Prospects for Investment in Mineral Resources of Southwestern Nigeria. Nig. Mining and Geosci. Soc. (NMGS), pp. 107-1103. ISBN 978-36831-0-1.

Lazareva O, Pichler T (2007) Naturally occurring arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, southwestern Florida: potential implication for phosphate mining. Appl Geochem 22(5):953-973

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2006.12.021

Li GX, Zhang J, Shao JP, Zhou B, Bi B, Xie KM, Fang XJ, Wang YZ (2014) Chemical properties of soil layers of restoration sites in phosphate mining area, China. Environ Earth Sci 73:2027-2030

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3551-8

Liu WX, Li XD, Shen ZG, Wang DC, Wai OWH, Li SY (2003) Multivariate statistical study of heavy metal enrichment in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary. Environ Pollut 121(3):377-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00234-8

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00234-8

Martha K (2001) Cradleto Grave: the Environmental Impacts from Coal. Clean Air Task Force, Boston

Maurya, S., Rashk, E.E., Naik, S.K., Choudhary, J.S., Kumar, S., (2018). Heavy metals scavenging potential of Trichoderma asperellum and Hypocrea nigricans isolated from acid soil of Jharkhand. Indian J. Microbiol. 59, 27-38.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-018-0756-7

Mining Journal Special Publication. (2006). Nigeria: An exciting new mining destination. Mining J. 1-20.

Ministry of the Environment (MOE), (2010). Soil Contamination Countermeasures. Ministry of the Environment. Government of Japan, Tokyo, Japan.

Murat, R.C. (1972). Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in southern Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T.F.J., Whiteman, A.J. (Eds.), African Geology. University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria, 251-266.

Ocholi, I.U. (2020). Geography of Kogi East. Kogi State University Printing Press. Anyigba, Nigeria.

Odongo, A.O., Moturi, W.N., Mbuthia, E.K., 2016. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women-A case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. Environ. Geochem. Health 38 (1), 123-131.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9690-3

Oelofse S.H.H. Hobbs P.J., Rascher J.,Cobbing, J.E. 2008. The pollution and destruction threat of gold mining waste on the Witwatersrand - A West Rand case study. Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production (SWEMP 2007), 11-13 December 2007. Bangkok. Pp. 1-10.

Oloche Robert Ekwule, Gabriel Delian Akpen and George Moses Ugbede (2019). THE EFFECT OF COAL MINING ON THE WATER QUALITY OF WATER SOURCES IN NIGERIA. Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. JONAS, 2(2): 251-260

Othman I, Al-Masri MS (2007) Impact of phosphate industry on the environment: a case study. Appl Radiat Isot 65(1):131-141

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2006.06.014

Park, I., Tabelin, C.B., Jeon, S., Li, X., Seno, K., Ito, M., Hiroyoshi, N., 2019. A review of recent strategies for acid mine drainage prevention and mine tailings recycling. Chemosphere 219, 588-606.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.053

Rashid HO, Hossain MS, Urbi Z, Islam MS (2014) Environmental impact of coal mining: a case study on the Barapukuria coal mining industry, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. MiddleEast J Sci Res 21(1):268-274

Reeuwijk, N.M., Talidda, A., Malisch, R., Kotz, A., Tritscher, A., Fiedler, H., Zeilmaker, M.J., Kooijman, M., Wienk, K.J.H., Traag, W.A., Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P., (2013). Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy. Chemosphere 90 (5), 1678-1685.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.09.064

Reyment, R.A. (1965). Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria: The Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic Deposits. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan.

Senoro, D.B., Bonifacio, P.B., Mascare˜nas, D.R., Tabelin, C.B., Ney, F.P., Lamac, M.R.L., Tan, F.J., (2020). Spatial distribution of agricultural yields with elevated metal concentration of the island exposed to acid mine drainage. J. Degrad. Min. Lands Manag. 8 (2), 2551-2558.

https://doi.org/10.15243/jdmlm.2021.082.2551

Silwamba, M., Ito, M., Hiroyoshi, N., Tabelin, C.B., Hashizume, R., Fukushima, T., Park, I., Jeon, S., Igarashi, T., Sato, T., Chirwa, M., Banda, K., Nyambe, I., Nakata, H., Makayama, S., Ishizuka, M.,( 2020). Recovery of lead and zinc from zinc plant leach residues by concurrent dissolution-cementation using zero-valent aluminum in chloride medium. Metals 10, 531.

https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040531

Sultan, K., Shazili, N.A., 2010. Geochemical baseline of major, minor and trace elements in the tropical sediments of the Terengganu River basin, Malaysia. Int. J. Sediment Res. 25, 340-354.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6279(11)60002-4

Tabelin, C.B., Igarashi, T., Villacorte-Tabelin, M., Park, I., Opiso, E.M., Ito, M., Hiroyoshi, N., 2018. Arsenic, selenium, boron, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in naturally contaminated rocks: a review of their sources, modes of enrichment, mechanisms of release, and mitigation strategies. Sci. Total Environ. 645, 1522-1553.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.103

Thomas, L (2002). Coal Geology, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, 384 pp.

Tokula A.E and Ejaro S.P (2018). The Impact of Urban Expansion on Agricultural Land and Crop Output in Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria. www.itspoa.com/journal/la

Tomiyama, S., Igarashi, T., Tabelin, C.B., Tangviroon, P., Li, H., 2020. Modeling of the groundwater flow system in excavated areas of an abandoned mine. J. Contam. Hydrol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103617.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103617

Ukwedeh, J.N. (2003): History of Igala Kingdom; Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd; Zaria- Nigeria.

World Coal Association (WCA). Coal. Retrieved June 21, 2017, from https://www.worldcoal.org/coal.

Woywodt, A., Kiss, A., 2002. Geophagia-The history of earth-eating. J. R. Soc. Med. 95 (3), 143-146.

https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.95.3.143

Wuana, R.A., Okieimen, F.E., 2011. Heavy metals in contaminated soils-A review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecol., 402647, 2011.

https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/402647

Younger, P.L., (1995). Hydrogeochemistry of mine waters flowing from abandoned coal workings in County Durham, UK. Q. J. Eng. Geol. 28, 101-113.

https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.QJEGH.1995.028.S2.02