Proximate Composition, Phytochemical Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ethanolic Leaf Extract and its Preservatives Effect in Bread

Main Article Content

Okema, Nyambi Okongoh
Effiong, Bartholomew Nyong

Abstract

A study on the phytochemical profile, proximate composition, and antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract was carried out. The extract (300g) was obtained by extraction in ethanol at 400ml and was evaluated for antimicrobial activity for seven (7) weeks against fifteen (15) microbial species by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) based on the mean diameter zone of inhibition around the disc in millimeters. The ethanolic extract was analyzed for quantitative and qualitative composition of phytochemical profiling. The qualitative screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, and glycosides while saponins and anthraquinones were not detected. The quantitative composition of the extract was; alkaloids (1.17±0.19), terpenes (11.48±0.36), tannins (4.73±0.13), flavonoids (0.73±0.00), cardiac glycosides (0.50±0.05) and glycosides (89.48±0.73). The proximate composition showed that carbohydrates and proteins were the most abundant followed by crude fiber and moisture content. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against, Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp, Enterobacter sp, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces sp, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp, Citrobacter sp, Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Candida sp and Fusarium sp through the measurement of zone of inhibition, the extract exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria under investigation with diameter of inhibition greater than 1 mm. A similar observation was recorded for the fungi species. The study has demonstrated that Andrographis paniculata leaf extract exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against some selected food spoilage organisms and in bread.

Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Antimicrobial Activity, Phytochemical Profiling, Proximate Composition

Article Details

Proximate Composition, Phytochemical Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ethanolic Leaf Extract and its Preservatives Effect in Bread. (2024). African Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Research, 15(1), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.62154/5qf56108
Articles

Copyright (c) 2024 Okema, Nyambi Okongoh, Effiong, Bartholomew Nyong (Author)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Okema, Nyambi Okongoh, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Department of Food Science and Technology,

University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Effiong, Bartholomew Nyong, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Department of Food Science and Technology,

University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Abiodun O. O., Abdullahi O. A., Adewale A., Olubukola S. O., Akinade W. O. (2021). Phytochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Bioactivity of Andrographis paniculata (Nees), Pan African Journal of Life Sciences,5(2):246-256

https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0220

Adamu, A.U, Paul, E.D, Gumba, G.E and Ndukwe, I.G. (2017). Phytochemical and proximate analysis of Aspillia Kotschyi (SCH.BIPEX,HOCUST) OLIV. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 36(4); 1135-1137

https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v36i4.19

Adekunle, A. A and Ikumapayi, A.M. (2006). Antifungal property and phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of Funtumia elastica and Mallotus oppositifolius. The West Indian Medical Journal, 55(4)219- 223

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0043-31442006000400003

Adesina, A.D., Akintobi, D.E., Banjo, O.O. and Apeh, G.O. (2023). Phytochemical screening of extract from leaves of Andrographis paniculata, Titania diversifollia, and macro-sphere longistyla. Journal of chemical science of Nigeria, 48(1); 116- 122

https://doi.org/10.46602/jcsn.v48i1.854

Alpers, I., Kerpes, R., Friolli, M., Nobis, A., Hoi, K.I., Bach, A., Johe, M and Beekers, T. (2021). Impact of storing condition on staling and spoilage behaviour of bread and other contributions to preventing food waste. Journal of Food Microbiology, 10; 76-81

https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010076

Al-shammar, B.B.J. (2024). The effect of adding an aqueous extract of olive leaves on prolonging the shelf-life of Arabic bread. Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 14(1); 72-75

https://doi.org/10.33794/qjas.2024.147978.1167

AOAC, (2010) Official Methods if Analysis (18th edition), Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC

Bhargavi, B. And Kaloori.K.(2018) Preliminary Phytochemical analysis of different solvent extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burn-F)WALL.EX.NEES. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 8(4):311-314

Bredariol, P., Spatti, M., & Vanin, F. M. (2019). Different baking conditions may Produce bread with similar physical qualities but unique starch gelatinization behaviour. LWT, 111, 737-743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.05.094

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.05.094

Brosnan J.T, Brosnan M.E (2013) Glutamate: a truly functional amino acid. Amino Acids 45:413-418

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-012-1280-4

Chaudhary, A., Sharma, S., Mittal, A., Gupta, S., and Dua, A. (2020). Phytochemical and antioxidant profiling of Ocimum sanctum. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(10):3852- 3863

https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04417-2

Cheesbrough M (2002). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries (Part ii). Tropical Health Technology Publishers, Great Britain.

Gao, J., Koh, A. H. and Zhou, W. (2022). Enhancing health benefits of bakery products using phytochemicals. Advanced Food Nutrition Research. 99, 239-281.

https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.afnr.2021.12.002

Gonelimali, F.D., Lin, J., Miao, W., Xuan, J., Charles F., Chen, M., and Hatab, S.R. (2018). Antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action of some plant extracts against food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Frontier in Food Microbiology, doi;10.3389/Fmicb.2018. 01639

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01639

Hsieh, Y.L, Shibu, M.A., Liu, C.K., Viswanadha, V.P., Lin, Y.L, Lai, C.U., Chen, K.H., Lin, W.W., Kuo,C.Y and Huang, C.Y. (2016). Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology .192:170-177.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.018

Humnabadkar, S.S and Kareppa, B. M. (2012) In vitro study of antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata against clinically important pathogens, International Journal of Advanced Biological Research, 2(4): 584- 586

Idorenyin, E.I., Ekpenyong, E.U., Ime, J.I and Alphonsus, I.A. (2020). Antimicrobial properties of Andrographis paniculata (vinegar) leaf on selected human pathogens. World Journal of Biology Pharmacy and Health Sciences 03(01); 060 - 065

https://doi.org/10.30574/wjbphs.2020.3.1.0047

Ihekoronye, A.I. and Ngoddy, P.O. (1985). Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics Macmillian Publishers Ltd., London, pp.109

Ijah, U.J.J., Auta, H.S., Adulogu, M.O., Aransiola, S.A (2014). Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread produced from wheat and potato flour blends. International Journal of Food Science, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/671701

https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/671701

Kelsay, J. (1981) Effect of diet fiber on bowel function and trace mineral balance of human subjects' cereal chemistry. Pp: 2-5

Khanom, A., Shammi, T. and Kabir, M.D (2017). Determination of microbiological quality of packed and unpacked bread. Stanford Journal of Microbiology, 6; 24-29

https://doi.org/10.3329/sjm.v6i1.33515

Manalisha, D., Medhi, A.K. and Kalita, J.C (2013). Biochemical Estimation of primary metabolites and mineral composition of Clitoria ternatea(L.) Roots. An International Quarterly Journal of Life Science, 8(2); 713-713

Mazumder, A., Saha, B. P, Basu, S. P, Mazumder, R. M. (2004). Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Lagerstroemia parviflora. Indian Journal of Natural Product, 19:20-23

Mishra, S., Tiwari, S. K., Kakkar, A., Pandey, A. K. (2012). Chermoprofiling of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh) for its Andrographolide content in Madhya Pradesh, India, International Journal of Pharmacology and Biological Science, 5(2):1-5

Nagajothi, S., Mekala, P., Raja,A., Raja, M.J.and Senthilkumar,N.(2018) Andrographis paniculata: qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(4):1251-1253.

Ogundele, J. O., Oshodi, A. A., and Amoo, I. A. (2012). Comparative study of amino acid and proximate composition of Citurllus colocynthis and Citrullus Vulgaris seeds. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11: 247-251

https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2012.247.251

Olufunke Faluyi, (2021). Nigeria's medicinal plants: Andrographis paniculata (meje meje)

Oomah, D.B. (2003) Isolation, characterization and assessment of secondary metabolite from plants for use in human health. PBI Bull.13- 20

Pandey, A., Gulati, S., Gupta, A. and Yogesh, C.T (2019). Variation in andrographolide content among different accessions of Andrographis paniculata. The Pharmaceutical Innovation Journal, 8(4): 140-144

Pandey, M., Abidi, A. B., Singh, S., Singh, R. P. (2016). Nutritional Evaluation of Leafy Vegetable Paratha. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(2):155-156.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09709274.2006.11905871

Pinto, L., Tapia- Rodriquez, M.R., Baruzzi, F. And Ayala- Zavala, J.F. (2023). Plant antimicrobial for food quality and safety: Recent News and future challenges, foods, https://doi.org/10.3390/foods/92122315

https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122315

Rajagopal, S., Kurmar,R., Deev, D., Satyanarayana, C and Rajagopal, R.(2003). Andrographolide, a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of experimental therapeutics and oncology, 3(3):147-158.

https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1359-4117.2003.01090.x

Robinson, H. (1978). Fundamentals of normal nutrition. 3rd Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp:41-125,272-284.

Saleem, M.; Nazir, M.; Ali, M.S.; Hussain, H.; Lee, Y.S.; Riaz, N.; Jabbar, A. (2010). Antimicrobial natural products: An update on future antibiotic drug candidates. Natural Production .2010, 27, 238-254.

https://doi.org/10.1039/B916096E

Saranraj, P. And Sivasakthivelan, P. (2015). Microorganisms involved in spoilage of bread and its control measures. Bread and its fortification: Nutrition and health benefits. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, UK, pp 132- 149

Shaikh, J.R., and Patil, M.K. (2020) Qualitative test for preliminary phytochemical screening; An overview. International Journal of chemical studies, 8(2):603 -608

https://doi.org/10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i2i.8834

Tajkarimi, M. M., Ibrahim, S. A., Cliver, D. O (2010). Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food, Food Control, 21(9):1199-1218

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.003

Tawio, F.O, Kehinde, D.A and Olayinka, O.A. (2023). Proximate composition, phytochemicals screening, and mineral content studies of leaf extract of Adenanthera Pavonina. Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 30(1); 317 -328

https://doi.org/10.1080/25765299.2023.2215437

Trease, G. E., Evans, W.C. (2002). Textbook of pharmacognosy. 14th edition; Balliere Tindall London. ;81-90.

Turker H, Yildirim B, Karakas F. P (2009). Antibacterial activities of extract from some Turkish endemic plants on common fish pathogens, Turk Journal of Biology, 33:73-79.

https://doi.org/10.3906/biy-0805-18

Urzua, A., Jara,F., Tojo, E., Wilkens, M., Mendoza, L. and Rezende, M.(2006). A new antibacterial clerodane diterpenoid from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus uncinatus. Journal of Ethanopharmacology.103:297- 301

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.042