Improved Design of Sanitary System at the Nigerian College of Aviation Technology (NCAT), Zaria

Main Article Content

A. U. Alka
U. A. Abubakar
S. B. Igboro

Abstract

Sanitation is a basic human requirement with the primary aim of separating human waste from settlements to prevent the spread of diseases. This study presents a preliminary design of a centralized sewerage collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal system for the Nigerian College of Aviation Technology (NCAT) Zaria, Kaduna State (Site 1). The results of physico-chemical analysis of samples showed concentrations of Nitrates (2,550mg/l) and total suspended solids T.S.S. (1,778mg/l) were above the acceptable standard limits. The concentrations of Zinc (5.31mg/l) and Lead (2.78mg/l) were also above the acceptable limits. A sewerage system which comprised of 18 manholes, 22 junction chambers and 39 sewers covering a distance of 2,816m was designed for the college. The results of the design showed that 3 facultative and 3 maturation ponds were required. The capital cost for implementing the proposed sewerage system and WSPs for the college was determined to be ₦14,649,855.75 with an annual cost of operation and maintenance of ₦3,030,000.00. A comparison of the proposed sewerage and WSPs system with the existing septic tank and soak-away system revealed that the proposed sewerage and WSPs system had a higher cost-benefit ratio (0.94), longer lifespan (30 years), lower cost of annual desludging (₦30,000.00), and lower risks of groundwater contamination.

Keywords: Sanitation, Design, Sewage, Heavy Metals, Sewerage, Sustainability

Article Details

Improved Design of Sanitary System at the Nigerian College of Aviation Technology (NCAT), Zaria. (2024). African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Energy, 15(1), 88-103. https://doi.org/10.62154/b8pxgv34
Articles

Copyright (c) 2024 A. U. Alka, U. A. Abubakar, S. B. Igboro (Author)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

A. U. Alka, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

U. A. Abubakar, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

S. B. Igboro, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Abdullahi, I., Nasiru, I., Saminu, A., Sagir, L., and Charity, E., (2014). Design of Waste Stabilization Pond for Sewage Treatment at Nigerian Defence Academy Staff Quarters, Permanent Site Mando Kaduna. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS) ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-1, Issue-2, November 2014.

Adewumi, J. R. and Oguntuase, A. M. (2016). Planning of Wastewater Reuse Programme in Nigeria. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 15, Iss. 1 (2016), Pp. 1-33

Adebowale, K. O., & Adewumi, J. R. (2020). Sustainable wastewater management practices in institutional settings: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 248, 109-118.

https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429479014-7

Adeleke, A. O., Adewumi, J. R., & Ademola, K. B. (2020). Evaluation of wastewater management systems in Nigerian institutions: A case study of the University of Ibadan. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 34, 53-63.

Akotey, J. N., Addo, M. A., & Nyarko, K. B. (2020). Factors influencing the adoption of centralized sewerage systems in Ghanaian institutions. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 10(2), 247-257.

Akali, D. M. (2013). Assessment and Improvement Design of the Sanitary System at Malali Housing Estate Kaduna, Kaduna State Nigeria. An Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Kaduna State Nigeria.

Akali, D. M., Iorhemen, O. T., and Adie, D. B. (2012). Comparative Analysis on the Use of Septic Tank and Sanitary Sewerage Systems at Malali Housing Estate, Kaduna - Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 09, November- 2012 ISSN: 2278-0181

Awuah, E., 2006, "Pathogen Removal Mechanisms in Macrophyte and Algal Waste Stabilization Ponds", Academic Board of Wageningen University and the Academic Board of the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Netherlands.

Egharevba, N. A (2009). Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Principles, Design and Practice. 2nd ed. Jos University Press, Nigeria.

Egwuonwu, C.C., Okafor, V.C., Ezeanya, N.C., Nzediegwu, C., Suleiman, A. and Uzoigwe, O., (2014). Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Model Waste Stabilization Pond. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 7(9): 1710-1714, 2014 ISSN: 2040-7459; e-ISSN: 2040-7467

https://doi.org/10.19026/rjaset.7.453

Garg, S.K. and Garg, R. (2006). Sewage Disposal and Air Pollution Engineering. 18th ed khanna Publishers, Nai Sarak, Delhi-India.

Giwa, A., (2014). Sustainable Wastewater Treatment- The way to go. The Nigerian Voice Newspaper June 23, 2014. http://www.thenigerianvoice.com/news/150573/1/sustainable-wastewater-treatment-the-way-to-go.html

Ibrahim F. B., Bayero, M. T., Courageous, T., Ismail, A. (2016). Characterization of Laboratory Wastewater: A Case Study of Faculty of Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Book of proceedings of the 15th annual international conference, Nigerian Materials Congress (NIMACON 2016).

ISO (2015). Environmental management systems - Requirements with guidance for use. International Organization for Standardization.

Lukman, S. (2009). Improvement Design of Ahmadu Bello University Sanitary Sewerage System. An Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Kaduna State Nigeria.

National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) (2005) Guidelines to Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, Federal Government Press Lagos, Nigeria.

Okparanma, R. N., Jumbo, R. B., and Chukwu, F. N. (2016) Combined Effects of Municipal and Industrial Wastes on the Quality of the New Northern Calabar River, Nigeria. Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Rivers State. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. Vol. 8(8), pp. 103-112, DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE2016.0656 Article Number: 489D8F459899 ISSN 2141-6613.

https://doi.org/10.5897/IJWREE2016.0656

Oluwole, A. O., Oladunjoye, I. K., & Adebowale, K. O. (2019). Heavy metal contamination in wastewater: A review of treatment technologies. Journal of Environmental Management, 248, 109-118.

Omenka, E., (2010). Improvement of Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Asaba, Nigeria. Department of Chemical Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Lund University, Sweden.

UNEP (2020). Environmental sustainability in institutional settings: A guide. United Nations Environment Programme.

Ugya, A.Y., & Imam, T.S. (2015a). The efficiency of Eicchornia crassipes in the phytoremediation of waste water from Kaduna Refinery and petrochemical company. IOSR J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol., 9: 43-47.

Vymazal, J. (2013). The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: A review of a recent development. J Water Res 47:4795-4811.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.05.029

WHO (2019). Guidelines for wastewater management in institutions. World Health Organization.

Yu, X., Wang, Z., Lynn, A., Cai, J., & Huangfu, Y. (2016). Heavy Metals in Wheat Grown in Sewage Irrigation: A Distribution and Prediction Model. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 25: 413-419.

https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/60351

Zhang, J. (2001). Modern Concept of City Sewerage System. China Eng. Sci., 3(10): 33 - 35.